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WHAT IS 3D PRINTING?

THE EXPERTS GUIDE

FDM 500 - 3D Printing

Part 1.

3D Printing Basics

What is 3D printing? What are the benefits, downfalls and limitations?

3D Printing Processes - 3D Printing

Part 2.

3D Printing Processes

A definitive overview of all the rapid prototyping processes available.

PD 500 - 3D Printing

Part 3.

3D Printing Materials

Learn more about 3D printing materials & limitations

Design - 3D Printing

Part 4.

Design For 3D Printing

Learn how to incorporate 3D printing into your design process.

3D Print Closeup - 3D Printing

Part 5.

Start 3D Printing

Tips on starting, from ordering online to buying a printer.

Part 1.

THE BASICS OF 3D PRINTING

What is 3D Printing?

3D Printing is an expanding method of industrial production that enables the creation of lighter, stronger parts & systems that drastically cuts product lead times. 

How Does 3D Printing Work?

Every 3D printer works on the same principle: using data from 3D computer aided design (CAD) or 3D scanners they transform them into a physical model by depositing material layer by layer. This type of process is widely known as ‘Additive Manufacturing’.

Compared to other methods of plastics processing; CNC machining, Injection Moulding, Vacuum Forming, Blow Moulding, Extrusion & Rotational Moulding. This additive method of manufacture requires the least amount to setup and has the lowest overheads. 

Additive manufacturing processes such as 3D printing, required no special tools are required (for example; a cutting tool for machining or a mould). Instead the part is manufactured by depositing material layer by layer onto a build platform to create precise geometric shapes. With all processes, this has its benefits and limitation – more information here.

History of 3D Printing Timeline

1987 – Chuck Hull of 3D Systems released the first Sterolithography (SLA) printer.

1990’s – 3D Systems invents the first Selective Layer Sintering (SLS) printer.

1990’s – Stratasys releases the first Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) printer.

2005 – University of Bath releases a new initiative called the RepRap project to create a low-cost printer.

2009 – ATSM International Committee publishes paper defining the standard terminology on Additive Manufacturing.

Benefits & Limitations of 3D Printing

With all manufacturing processes, it’s important to understand its benefits and limitations. It comes with a unique set of advantages, however can be disadvantageous in certain scenarios. Here in this guide we summarise we take into account the pros and cons of all the different 3D printing processes currently available:

Benefits:

Complex Geometry

3D printing enables users to produce parts with complex geometry which is in some instances impossible for subtractive & formative methods to create. 

Low Cost

Compared to other plastic processes, there are little to no initial setup costs to get parts made. You just need the printer and material to get started.

Part Customisation

Parts can be made in custom materials, colours or finishes with engravings or logos to make a part personal to that individual or company.

Quick Lead Times

With formative processes such as; injection moulding, blow moulding or roto moulding new parts can take up to 12-weeks to go into manufacture. However 3D printing can considerably reduce this initial lead time.

Large Range of Materials

There are a number of different materials available for 3D printing, including conductive, metal and ceramics. 

Limitations

Low Strength & Antriscopic Properties

Due to the process of 3D printing where layers are deposited on each other, if not properly fused these layers can separate. It’s important to consider print orientation when printing parts to ensure and loads applied are perpendicular to the layer direction.

Part Cost at High Volumes

Due to the nature of 3D printing, it’s a time expensive process which becomes expensive when printing multiple parts. Where cycle times are hours, sometimes days compared to seconds for injection moulding. 

Limited Accuracy & Tolerances

Compared to other processes such as subtractive CNC machining, 3D printing has much lower tolerances.

Post Processing & Support Removal

Due to the process of 3D printing, this leaves layer lines in parts. Compared to other plastic manufacturing methods, this can give an undesirable finish which requires some form of sanding, polishing or painting to give a smooth and even finish. 

Bottom, free-hanging surfaces usually have inconsistent surface finishes as well. As these areas usually come into contact with supports which are removed once the parts are finished printing.

Applications of 3D Printing

We put together a few examples to show the different applications of 3D printing and how it can be applied practically.

Aerospace - 3D Printing

Aerospace

Aerospace & space engineering firms use 3D printing to produce accurate, high-performance, lightweight components that have complex geometries. 3D printing allows complex assemblies to be simplified into a singular part. 

Automotive - 3D Printing

Automotive

The automotive industry has benefitted hugely from 3D printing. Whether it be used to support research and development during the design stages or used in a support role during manufacture & assembly (jigs & fixtures).

Civil Engineers - 3D Printing

Civil Engineering

Low cost & constructed in less than 24 hours, 3D printed houses are now a reality. Eindhoven University of Technology are proposing plans to implement this, with the first house ready for occupation in 2019.

Classroom - 3D Printing

Education

Often in classrooms, its difficult for educators to engage with students. Through 3D printing, course subjects can be brought to life through physical models. This provides students with an unforgettable learning experience.

Medicine - 3D Printing

Medicine

Advances in modern medicine can help prolong life expectancy and prevent disease. 3D printing is a key tool in accomplishing this, helping to create synthetic organs, devices or even used in planning complex surgical procedures.

Manufacturing - 3D Printing

Manufacturing

Numerous companies are now implementing 3D printing into their manufacturing processes. Audi for examples currently provides all factory employees with bespoke orthopaedic devices for pushing snap-fit components

Part 2.

3D PRINTING PROCESSES

ISO / ATSM 52900 standard classifies all the different 3D printing processes into seven main categories:

FDM 3D PRINTER PROCESSES IMAGE - 3D Printing

Material Extrusion (FDM)

Material Extrusion otherwise known as Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is the most common type of 3D printing available. Originally trademarked by Stratasys, the process involves material being drawn through a nozzle where it is headed and deposited layer by layer to create a 3D shape.

SLS PRINTING PROCESS - 3D Printing

Powder Bed Fusion (SLM & SLS)

Using either a laser or electron beam, Powder Bed Fusion (PBM) harnesses this energy to melt and fuse material powder together. This process involves the spreading of fresh powder material over the previously fused layers, there are a number of different mechanisms that enable this including a roller or a blade.

SLA 3D PRINTER PROCESSES - 3D Printing

VAT Polymerisation (SLA & DLP)

Stereolithography (SLA) or Digital Layer Projection (DLP) is the process in which UV reactive, liquid copolymer resin is cured by a projected or drawn outline. This process produces highly detailed parts, as the laser / projector resolution defines the accuracy of the part. 

MATERIAL JETTING PROCESS - 3D Printing

Material Jetting

Similar to an inkjet printer, material is jetted onto a build platform using either a continuous or Drop on Demand (DOD) process. Nozzles move horizontally across the platform similar to material extrusion (FDM), then the layers are cured using Ultraviolet (UV) light.

BINDER JETTING PROCCESSES - 3D Printing

Binder Jetting

This process involves two materials; a powder based material and a binder. The binder usually in liquid form, acts as an adhesive where it is deposited from the print head to fuse with previously printed layers. This process isn’t suitable for structural & functional parts and requires post-processing.

DED PROCESS - 3D Printing

Directed Energy Deposition (DED)

Using a 4 or 5-axis arm this process uses a nozzle that mixes material whilst being delivered using a laser or electron beam. DED is typically used for 3D printing metals, however can also be used to print ceramics and polymers. 

SHEET LAMINATION - 3D Printing

Sheet Lamination

Broken down into two different processes Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) and Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM). These processes involve the layering of sheet or ribbon material and then being cured or bonded. Both processes require additional CNC machining and post-processing. 

Part 3.

3D PRINTING MATERIALS

In this section we’ll go through all the 3D printing materials available on the market today

ENCLOSURE ABS 500 - 3D Printing

ABS

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)

One of the first 3D printing materials available on the market. This material is well-regarded for its toughness and impact resistance. 

Strength

2.5/5

Stiffness

2.5/5

Durability

4/5

Cost

1/5
LEICA CAMERA PART ABS 500 - 3D Printing

PLA

Polylactic Acid (PLA)

The most commonly available 3D printing material on the market. Derived from crops it’s environmentally friendly as it is renewable and biodegradable. 

Strength

3.5/5

Stiffness

3.5/5

Durability

2/5

Cost

0.5/5
NYLON 12 TURBINE 500 - 3D Printing

NYLON

Polyamide (Nylon)

Popular engineering grade 3D printing material known for its impact resistance, strength and flexibility. Also chemically resistant to diesel and petrol.

Strength

3.75/5

Stiffness

2.5/5

Durability

4.5/5

Cost

3/5
PIPE PC 500 - 3D Printing

PC

Polycarbonate (PC)

Intended for tough environments & engineering applications Polycarbonate is known for strength, durability and its high heat deflection.

Strength

4/5

Stiffness

4/5

Durability

5/5

Cost

3/5
RING ABS 500 - 3D Printing

ASA

Acrylic Styrene Acrylonitrile (ASA)

Well known for its impact resistance and strength like its similar counterpart ABS. It’s highly UV stable due to an rubber additive in its formulation.

Strength

3.5/5

Stiffness

3/5

Durability

3/5

Cost

2/5
PEEK BATTERY COVER 500 - 3D Printing

PEEK

Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK)

Incredibly temperature and chemically resistant, PEEK is a specialist engineering material which is capable of operating in tough environments.

Strength

5/5

Stiffness

4.5/5

Durability

5/5

Cost

5/5
TPU TYRE 500 - 3D Printing

TPU

Thermoplastics Polyurethane (TPU) 

One of the few flexible 3D printing materials available on the market today. Useful for parts that require an elastic / rubber feel (tyres for example).

Strength

2/5

Stiffness

0/5

Durability

4/5

Cost

3/5
PEI Pin 500 - 3D Printing

PEI

Polyethermide (PEI / ULTEM)

Well known for its exceptional heat, chemical and flame resistance properties. Similar to PEEK it performs well in high performance applications.

Strength

4.5/5

Stiffness

4.5/5

Durability

5/5

Cost

4.5/5
RIGID RESIN 10K PARTS 500 - 3D Printing

Resin

Acrylate Monomer

Produces highly detailed parts with smooth, injection mould-like surface finishes. Excellent for lost casting processes such as for jewellery.

Strength

3/5

Stiffness

5/5

Durability

3.5/5

Cost

4/5

Part 4.

DESIGN FOR 3D PRINTING

For all 3D printing processes a 3D file is required, the most common format for this in additive manufacturing is ‘STL’.

There are a number of software solutions that can export STL files. We’ve listed all the different packages available that are used by ourselves, our customers and our support network. 

Here are some packages we recommend:

  • Autodesk Fusion 360 → CAD / CAM / CAE software free for students & hobbyists.
  • AutoCAD → CAD software for architects, engineers & construction professionals.
  • Blender → Free 3D sculpting software.
  • CATIA → CAD / CAM / CAE software specialising in advanced surface modelling.
  • DesignSpark → Free electrical & mechanical design software.
  • Inventor → Professional mechanical design software.
  • Meshmixer →  Free 3D modeling software that allows users to easily create and correct 3D models. 
  • Onshape → Cloud based 3D CAD & PDM software.
  • Rhino3D → 3D CAD design software, useful with plugins such as Grasshopper.
  • Revit → 3D BIM software, plugins required to export STL files.
  • SketchUp → Free CAD software aimed at Architects, Designers & Engineers.
  • Solidworks → Powerful 3D CAD / CAM software recognised as the industry standard software.
  • ZBrush → Professional digital sculpting software.
  • Modo → 3D modelling, texturing & rendering software.

Part 5.

START 3D PRINTING

If you are new to design (or if you are simply looking for something to print fast), then one of the many online repositories might already have what you are looking for.

Here are some websites we recommend:

  • Thingiverse → The largest online repository with thousands of free 3D printable files for desktop 3D printing.
  • MyMiniFactory → A popular online repository with free 3D models that are tested for quality and are guaranteed to be 3D printable.
  • Cults → An online marketplace with high quality 3D printable models by professional designers, and curated collections connected to big-name brands.
  • Pinshape → An online marketplace with both free and premium 3D printable files, focusing mainly on hobbyists.
  • GrabCAD → An online repository of many 3D models that also includes some 3D printable files, focusing mainly on engineering professionals.
SGD CIRCLE - 3D Printing

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